Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The American with Disabilities Act in 1990 was designed to address employment and unemployment of disabled individuals, but is intentionally unspecific for what was designated as a disability (ADA, 1990). Physical impairments are usually simple to identify, the cognitive impairments are not unless a mental expenditure is required. Living in between episodes of wellness and exacerbations of sickness reflects the incongruent appearance of normal (Vick, 2013). Ã¢â¬Å"But you look so normal,Ã¢â¬ is society and the workplaceÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to reconcile a disconcerting feeling of uneasiness and apprehension when faced with a co-worker and the immediate occurrence or reminder of the disability, whereas for the individual with the disability, Ã¢â¬Å"lookingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The covering of nerve fibers, myelin, is destroyed in an autonomic reaction triggered by unknown factors. The loss of the myelin disrupts the nerve signals to the brain causing a failure to communic ate, an exacerbation, leaving a section of nerve fibers unable to properly conduct the electrical signals between the brain and nerve endings (Leslie, Kinyanjui, Bishop, Rumrill Jr, Roessler, 2015). These exacerbations are unpredictable and varied depending on the area of destruction but can be reduced and managed with pharmaceuticals that inhibit the immune system and by making lifestyle changes to adjust to the reduction is nerve signals. The myelin, once damaged, will not regrow, which causes episodic and unpredictable complications that reflect the nature of symptoms that threaten the logical boundaries of wellness or sickness and able or disabled. The stigma attached to the word disability is detrimental to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health in the workplace unless an understanding and supportive environment is provided (Leslie, et al., 2015). One approach based on a positivistic sociology theory is the interpretive sociological theory. This tangent of sociology recognizes that experiences and behaviors are subjective in nature and are equally important to study as the objective facts sought by quantitative research methods (Lee, 1991).Show MoreRelatedAmerican With Disability Act Essay1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Employers Under the American with Disability Act Candyce D. Watson Columbia College According to the Office of Disability Employment Office, Ã¢â¬Å"The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a landmark federal law that protects the rights of people with disabilities by eliminating barriers to their participation in many aspects of living and working in America. In particular, the ADA prohibits covered employers from discriminating against people with disabilities in the full range of employment-relatedRead MoreAmericans With Disability Act Essay1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The history of the Americans with Disabilities Act began long before it was originally introduced to Congress in 1988. (Mayerson, 1992). There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one person responsible for the ADA but rather thousands of Americans who have fought for the rights of people with disabilities and constantly worked to make their lives easier. People with disabilities for a long time were thought of as outsiders in society and were shunned by the majority. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s when organizationsRead MoreAmericans With Disabilities Act Essay890 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) states that an employer may not discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability. (US Airways, Inc. v. Barnett). A qualified individual includes, but is not limited to, an individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the relevant employment position. Id. Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable accommodation is any change or adjustment to a job or work environment that permits a qualified applicantRead MoreThe Americans with Disability Act Essay1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstandards have been set forth to provide disabled people with the same opportunities to access content available on the World Wide Web, as it is most of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s population. The presence of medical conditions, classified as disabilities by the Americans with Disabilities Act as, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individualÃ¢â¬ ¦ (2008, Sect.4), has created a demand for equality on the W. W. W. similar to demands of equality byRead MoreAmericans With Disability Act Essay882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The signing of the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s with Disabilities Act (ADA) on July 26, 1990, was one of the largest gatherings for the signing of a piece of legislation in the history of the United States. It passed Congress with overwhelming bipartisan support. President George H.W. Bush hailed the bill as an unambiguous civil rights achievement. The ADA expands civil rights to disabled individuals similar to those provided to on the basis of race, gender, age, and religion. It is a civil rights law that prohibitsRead MoreEssay The American with Disabilities Act2290 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagestypical for a common person, who is free from disability. In my opinion, the quote Ã¢â¬Å"All men are created equalÃ¢â¬ serves to promote a friendly environment that helps encourage equality among people and aids to recognize the similarities rather than the differences that separates men. Even so, with this hope, the disabled community still struggles for equality. According to Legal Rights by the Nati onal Association of the Deaf (NAD), Ã¢â¬Å"Almost 10 percent of all American have some kind of hearing loss. These tenRead MoreAmericans With Disabilities Education Act Essay917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestowards people who have disabilities. Many of these laws benefit the people who need them. One of the biggest deaf laws is IDEA, but there are many others including, The Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Without these laws the deaf community wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t grow and have become what it is today. These acts have been in place for years and help indulge the deaf in their magnificent world. The IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) act isRead MoreEssay on The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is one of the most significant laws in American History. Before the ADA was passed, employers were able to deny employment to a disabled worker, simply because he or she was disabled. With no other reason other than the persons physical disability, they were turned away or released from a job. The ADA gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national originRead More Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Essay757 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Approximately 54 million non-institutionalized Americans have physical, intellectual, or psychiatric disabilities (Hernandez, 2000). . The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) protects individuals with disabilities from discrimination based upon their disability (Bennett-Alexander, 2001). The protection extends to discrimination in a broad range of activities, including public services, public accommodations and employment. The ADAs ban againstRead MoreEssay on The Americans with Disabilities Act of 19902598 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe path to enacting the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is the history of the disability rights movement and its struggle to attain a better chance for equality not unlike other minority groups. The Disability community came to realize that the problem they were fighting was discrimination. The Disability community came face to face with some of the same problems and challenges that every individual who is in the minority faces. However, a disabled individual was not considered to be in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Personality Development Position CBT assumes that development is continuous throughout the lifespan. Therefore, personality is adaptable. Personality development in CBT emphasizes cognitive learning processes, such as thinking and judging. Personality is developed out of learning experiences in which cognitive constructs are formed. These cognitive constructs serve as our lens in which we view the world and our future experiences (Newman Newman, 2012). Maladapted constructs often occur in early childhood and are increasingly consolidated as the client faces new experiences; this can ultimately lead to maladaptive belief systems (Beck Dozois, 2011). These maladaptive constructs of personality, such as cognitive distortions, or unwanted reactions and/or thinking processes can be unlearned and new constructive thinking processes learned. Furthermore, Beck postulated the idea of sociotropy and autonomy playing an important role in personality development; these concepts are similar to EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt. Sociotropy is an excessive interest in social relationships and a strong need for social acceptance and autonomy is an achievement oriented interest centering on internal motivation (Merrill Strauman, 2004). Both traits are vulnerable to psychological difficulty (depression and anxiety) particularly in the event of interpersonal rejection and loss for sociotropy and personal failure in autonomy. Case Study: ClientShow MoreRelatedCognitive Theories And Development Of A Healthy Personality Essay1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCognitive theories tend toward development stage models because our cognitive and mental processes serves as an explanation toward how a child develops. Cognitive theories focus on the idea of nature versus nature. The way our metal processes are formed can be biological or externally influenced. Cognitive theories are used to explain how a child develops through different stages. Our brain has to form networks in order for us to develop normally. We learn the fundamental needs to survive and needRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Personality, Cognitive Development, And Infancy1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAustrian doctor was one of the pioneers in studying the nature of personality, cognitive development, and infancy, and also remarked how important the first years of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life are for future development of the mentioned characteristics (Coon Mitterer, 2012). According to John W. Satrock behavior; as part of the psychoanalitic theories, is merely a surface characteristic and a true and deep understanding of development is require to analize the symbolic meaning of behavior and the deepRead MoreLearning Personality Theories1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLearning Personality Theories PSY/405 August 8, 2011 Linda O Connor Learning Personality Theories Psychologists have attempted to explain personality with the development of various personality theories. Each theory varies in regard to explanations and views. Each theory of learning personality provides explanations, ideology, and dimensions. Learning personality theories focus mainly on interactions individuals have with his or her environment. Each theory believes that individuals reactRead MoreCognitive, Social And Personality Changes1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The persistent personal characteristics that are revealed in a particular pattern of behavior in different situation are known as personality. This paper will explore the cognitive, social and personality changes that occur when a person is 24 years old. One of the major issues in cognitive development has been Ã¢â¬Å"nature and nurtureÃ¢â¬ , i.e. if cognitive development is mainly determined by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s innate qualities (Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬ ), or by their personal experiences (Ã¢â¬Å"nurtureÃ¢â¬ ). First, the age isRead MoreExpectancy Theory And Social Cognitive Theory Essay1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation Theories: Expectancy Theory in Practice and Social Cognitive Theory Expectancy theory in practice In Expectancy theory we focus on the mental processes when considering choice, or choosing. It clarifies what an individual feel while making choices. In the study of organizational behavior, we can see that expectancy theory is a motivation theory, it tells us that employees who are sure in their ability to perform a particular task are motivated by their expectations of the consequencesRead MoreExpectancy Theory And Social Cognitive Theory Essay1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExpectancy Theory in Practice and Social Cognitive Theory Expectancy theory in practice Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. In the study of organizational behavior, expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. Expectancy theory tells us that people who are confident in their ability to perform a particular task are motivatedRead MoreTheories Of Personality : Psychodynamic, Trait Or Five Factor Model, Humanistic, And Social Cognitive974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfour major theories of personality: psychodynamic, trait or five-factor model, humanistic, and social-cognitive. The psychodynamic theory primarily focuses on the role of the unconscious mind. The social cognitive theory focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior and is based on theories of learning. Whereas, the humanistic theory emphasizes conscious life experiences and choices. The trait or five-factor model focuses on characterist ics themselves and not the roots of personality. To beginRead MoreThe Theories Of Personality And Social Cognitive Theory1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPersonality is defined as the characteristic ways in which a person thinks, feels and behaves. Personality makes a person who they are but it is not a distinct thing. Many theorists disagree about personality and the theories that lie within in it. The three main theories of personality are; the Trait Approach, the Humanistic Approach and the Social Cognitive Theory. The trait approach focuses on the differences and the interaction of different personality traits that create an individuals personality;Read MoreChildhood And Adolescence : Toward A Field Of Inquiry1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle 1 Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence: Toward a Field of Inquiry Yongmin, S. (2008). Children s well-being during parents marital disruption process: A pooled time-series analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(2), 472-488. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ Yongmin attempted to show with this article how marriage can Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ for a married couple when their children turns the age(s) 12-17, also known as the beginning of adolescence. His research focusesRead MoreThe Generation Of Young Professionals1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestotal of one-third of the total U.S. population, are the rising professionals of society today and, for better or for worse, will soon be the next up and coming leaders in our career fields. However, due to the burst of scientific and technological development that has so rapidly occurred over the past twenty years, this generation of young professionals is distinctly unique from those of the past in the sense that we are more informed, yet less relational. High exposure to instantaneous information from
It is in the early hours of Monday morning when Ho Essay ryelden returns Grand Central Station. He decides to sleep on one of the benches in the waiting room because he has nowhere else to go. He wakes around nine, as the hustle and bustle of the working day begins. He thinks about the night before and the incident with Mr. Antolini; he wonders if he has misinterpreted Antolinis touch. Disturbed by these though, he tries to think of something else. He reads a magazine someone has left behind. It is some kind of health magazine, however, and Holden gets more depressed, certain he has cancer and is dying. Holden decides to go out and buy himself an inexpensive breakfast. He does not want to spend too much of Phoebes money. Since his stomach is upset, he just drinks coffee. He leaves the train station and walks out to Fifth Avenue. All around him, people seem to be in the Christmas spirit, which is depressing to Holden. He begins to imagine he is disappearing, becoming invisible. He thinks the distance it takes to cross the street keeps growi ng and fears he will never reach the other side; it is like a death dream. He then begins to talk to his dead brother, asking him to help him cross the street. Each time Holden makes it across another street, he thanks Allie. After a while, Holden sits down on a bench to formulate a plan of action. He decides he will hitchhike way out west. However, he decides to meet Phoebe one last time and say good-bye. He goes to her school and delivers a note asking her to meet him in the Metropolitan Museum of Art for lunch. Since he has nothing else to do, he goes to the museum to wait. While Holden waits, he meets two young boys and helps them locate the display of Egyptian mummies. The tomb-like structure makes Holden ill, and he goes to the bathroom and faints. Once he revives, he goes out to wait for Phoebe. She is twenty minutes late, but she is no longer mad. In fact, she shows up with a suitcase, announcing her intention to go with Holden. He scolds her and tells her no, which makes he r sulk. Finally, Holden convinces her he will not leave. He takes her to the zoo, and they end up at the carousel. Holden watches as she rides the carousel over and over, bringing the action of the novel to an end. Words/ Pages : 420 / 24
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Lala Lajpat Rai Essay Ashely Newsome Period 7 Avid Mrs. McGough Lala Lajpat Rai Thesis: Lala Lajpat Rai was an all around freedom fighter for India. He wanted them to be free from British rule. He protested openly and was arrested several times, and eventually killed during a protest. He fought bravely and faithfully for what he believed in, he fought for what he thought was wrong and the ways to make it right. India for a long time had grown tired of British rule, and they wanted to run their own country. They fought hard and protested with little to no success, until one man came onto the scene, his name was Lala Lajpat Rai. His goal was to reform Indian Policy through political tactics and through his writings. Lala focused on peaceful movements to create successful demonstrations for Indian Independence. The nickname he was given was Punjab Kesari, which meant The Lion of Punjab. Lala Lajpat Rai was born in 1865 into an Aggarwal, or trader family. His birth took place at his mothers grand-parents home in a village called Dhudike in Ferozpur District, while his mother was visiting there. His father, Munshi Radha Krishna Azad, a religious and educated man, was at the time receiving education at Normal School, Delhi after serving as a teacher for three years. We will write a custom essay sample on Lala Lajpat Rai specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lala Lajpat Rai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lala Lajpat Rai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Lalas mother, Shrimati Gulab Devi, a strict religious lady, tauhgt her children strong morals values. Lala received his education, until his Entrance Examination, in places where his father was assigned as a teacher. Lala joined the Government College in Lahore in 1880, to study Law. While in college, he came in contact with patriots and future freedom fighters like: Lala Hans Raj and Pandit Guru Dutt. The three became fast friends and joined the Arya Samaj, a hindu reform movement, founded by Swami Daya Nanda. Lala passed his Mukhtiarship, or junior pleader, examination and started his legal practice in Jagraon. He passed his Vakilship Examination in Second Division from Government College in 1885. He started his practice in Rohtak, but moved it to Hissar where some of his friends were also practicing the Law. Lalas early legal practice at Hissar was very successful. Besides practicing, Lala collected funds for the Daya Nand College, attended Arya Samaj functions and participated in some Congress activities. He was elected to the Hissar district as a member and later as secretary. Lala shifted to Lahore in 1892. Soon after settling in Lahore, the Arya Samaj suffered a vertical split into two partys, the College Party and the Gurukul Party. Lala supported the College Party which favored teaching English along with Sanskrit in schools, while the Gurukul Party wanted the exclusion of English from the curriculum. The Arya Samaj managed to maintain its unity owing to the efforts of Lala and many other experienced leaders who realized that a split would hurt the nation. Lala started the Anglo-Sanskrit High School at Jullundur and assumed the responsibility as the Secretary of the Management Committee. He was an advocate of self- reliance and refused to take Government aid for the D. A. V College. Lala also became the General Secretary of the first Hindu orphanage, established at Ferozepur by the Atya Samaj. Lala provided immense services toward the famine relief efforts during the famines of 1897 and 1899. He mobilized D. A. V. college students and went to Bikaner and other areas of Rajasthan to rescue poor children and bring them to Lahore. He believed that A nation that does not protect its own orphan children, cannot command respect at the hands of other people. When the people fleeing from the famine reached Lahore, they spent their first night at Lalas house. When the Kangra district of Punjab suffered destruction in the earthquake of 1905, Lala was there once again, organizing relief for extricating people from the debris. In 1898, Lala reduced the time he put into his legal practice, and vowed to devote all his energy to his nation. Lala was opposed to the recommendations of the University Education Commission. The commission, recommended Government control of education and set forth difficult standards for starting private schools. Punjab was adversely affected by the commission because the Arya Samaj was extremely ctive in the field of education. After the commission, it became impossible for the people to have any say in their childrens education. Lala declared that The Government, by these new regulations, has made it almost impossible for the Private Education Societies to start schools or improve them. People are compelled to conclude that the Government does not want to spend money for educational work, nor can they endure that I ndians should voluntarily undertake this work by spending money, unless the Indians hand over their money and efforts to the Government. It would have been impossible for institutions like the Metropolitan College, Calcutta College, Fergusson College, Poona and D. A. V. College to come into existence under the present policies. Lala dove headlong in the struggle against division of Bengal. Along with Surendra Nath Banerjea, Bipin Chandra Pal and Arvinda Ghosh, he aroused Bengal and the nation in a vigorous campaign of swadeshi. The British Government claimed that partition would make administering the region easier. The leaders saw through this excuse as the age old British policy of divide and rule at work. Lala was arrested on May 3, 1907 for creating turmoil in Rawalpindi. Lala went there when he learned that five prominent Indian lawyers had been served notices by the Deputy Commissioner. The District Magistrate banned any public meetings or speeches. Lala was to give a speech at Rawalpindi in connection with the served notices. The Magistrate declared the congregation that had come to hear Lalas speech seditious. When Lala could not stop their arrest, he returned to Lahore to move the Chief Court for the bail of the lawyers. The Government was informed that Lala was responsible for the uproar in Rawalpindi and was arrested. When he arrived at the Commissioners office, Lala was told that he was under arrest in pursuance of a warrant issued by the Governor General who had decided to deport him. At about 4 a. m. Lala was put on a special train that left for Calcutta. Lala reached the Diamond Harbor railway station and was put on a ship which sailed for Mandalay fort. Lala remained in Mandalay for six months. Lala was released on November 11, 1907. While in Manadalay, two British newspapers charged Lala of conspiring with the Amir of Kabul for overthrowing the British Raj in India. On his release Lala filed law suits against the newspapers for making false statements and won both cases. Fearing prosecution from the Government for having contacts with Lali, the College Party of Arya Samaj issued a statement which read that the D. A. V. College had no connections with Lala Lajpat Rai. Lala was deeply hurt by this statement but he continued to support the College and the Samaj from outside. Lala believed that it was important for the national cause to organize propaganda in foreign countries to explain Indias position because the freedom struggle had taken a militant turn. He left for Britain in April 1914 for this purpose. Lala wrote numerous articles and delivered many speeches. A couple of months later, World War I broke out between England and Germany and Lala was not allowed to return to India. Lala immediately made plans to go to U. S. A. to arouse more political support for Indias cause. He founded the Indian Home League Society of America and wrote a book called Young India with a preface written by Col. Wedgewood, a member of the British Parliament. The book constituted the most damaging parts of British rule in India. The book was banned in Britain and India even before it was published. While Lala was in America, the British press churned out propaganda against Lala, charging him with taking ten thousand dollars from Germany. Lalajwas able to return to India only after the war was over in February 1920. On his return, the Congress invited him to preside over the special session in Calcutta in 1920. Lala supported the non-cooperation movement, which was being launched in response to the Rowlatt (Black) Act. He was skeptical if such a mass boycott that was comprising educational institutions, jobs, law courts and foreign goods was truly achievable. Lala nevertheless exhorted the nation to answer the Congresss demand for complete non-cooperation. The Congress started the Tilak Swarajya Fund to raise more money for the effort. Lala collected nine thousand dollars within two weeks for the fund. Lala was arrested on December 3, 1921 in Lahore for his activities related to the non-cooperation movement and was imprisoned for a year and a half. The British began to employ the tried and tested Divide and Rule policy once again by harping on communal discord between Hindus and Muslims. Riots were justified by Muslim leaders as a fight for equal political rights if and when India became free. The Muslim leaders assured that the squabbles would stop if they were granted political rights according to their wishes. To cater to this request, the Congress appointed Lala and Dr. Ansari for bringing Hindu- Muslim unity. Chittranjan Das submitted his own proposal while Lala and Dr. Ansari were holding deliberations. C. R. Dass efforts failed to achieve their goal and Hindu-Muslim discord persisted. Gandhiji ended the non-cooperation movement when riots broke out at Bardoli. Lala diverted his attention again to social and educational projects. He reopened the Jagaraon High School and started a newspaper called People. He started the Lok Sewak Society, whose member toured from place to place and started new schools for the depressed classes. He donated a thousand dollars toward the construction of the Gulab Devi Memorial Hospital in memory of his deceased mother. Lala was disgusted at the arrogance of the British for sending the Simon Commission comprised of Britishers only. On February 16, 1927, Lala moved a resolution in the Central Legislative Assembly, refusing cooperation with the Simon Commission at any stage or in any form. He spoke with such emotion that he carried the house and got the resolution adopted in the Assembly. The Government imposed section 144 to restrain people from protesting against the commission. Lala joined a demonstration against the Simon Commission. The police lathi-charged the assembled (lath-charge is when they use a giant stick and thrust it into crowds violently only done in India). While L ala tried his best to keep the demonstration peaceful, the police targeted and wounded him in his chest. The people were enraged at this insult and held a meeting the same evening. Lala, though in intense pain, gave a speech and declared Every blow aimed at me is a nail in the coffin of British Imperialism. He recovered from the wounds left by the British but he remained emotionally scarred at the brutality of the civilized British. Why had he been specifically targeted by the British? Why had they lathi- charged against a peaceful gathering. These thoughts racked his spirit until the very end of his time. Lala died on November 17, 1928 of heart failure. Lala appealed to the people I do not know whether I shall remain, but you should never worry. My spirit after me will go on exhorting you to make more sacrifices for liberty. Lala was a brave feedom fighter who constantly put himself in harms way for others. He was an extrordinary leader and he fought hard and diligently, he backed down from no challenge. Lala Lajpat Rai is one of the greatest leders the world will ever know. Cite Page http://www. iloveindia. com/indian-heroes/lala-lajpat-rai. html http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Lala_Lajpat_Rai http://www. culturalindia. net/leaders/lala-lajpat-rai. html
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Buddhism Buddhism to me has always seemed to be something similar to that of a fairytale. Not knowing much about the religion, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand how you could live happily ever after by looking up to a fat guy and making weird chanting sounds to who knows who. Needless to say, for my exploration of culture, I chose Buddhism. To pursue my study, I attended a class at the Heruka Buddhist Center on October 17, and talked, afterwards, with a Western Buddhist nun, Gen Kelsang Losel, who came to Fort Collins from England for the center. The class was on contemplating the faults of attachments, a core belief among Buddhists. The session began with a half hour of meditation to relax the muscles of the body and release tension. Then for forty-five minutes she lectured. She talked about how all of our attachments and desires in our life lead us to pain and suffering. So in order to be happy, one must let go of our attachments. Following, was another session of meditation. Siddhartha Guatama, the founder of Buddhism, was born into a Hindu family where he was sheltered from pain and suffering. At age nineteen, he married his cousin and had had a son. At twenty-nine he left his wife and began a quest of inner illumination, recognizing that much of the world experiences suffering. Six years later he concluded that a life of self denial was futile. He sat under a tree and meditated for the first time, for this reason, Siddhartha was called Buddha which means enlightened one, and he realized that the cause of suffering was desire, attachment to material things. He spent the next forty years preaching the message of humility and compassion. He emphasized nirvana, which is what all Buddhists strive to achieve. It signifies the end of suffering and craving, the attainment of perfect peace. An Arahant is someone who has attained Nirvana. He said anyone can reach nirvana, by avoiding all extremes in accordance with the eightfold p... Free Essays on Buddhism Free Essays on Buddhism THE story of Gautama, the Buddha (the enlightened one), is well known. He expounded the four noble truths (Arya Satya) concerning suffering, its cause, its destruction and the way to the elimination of sorrow. He was against the extremes of both self-indulgence and self-mortification. A Middle Path was advocated consisting of right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right contemplation. He rejected the authority of the Vedas, condemned ritualistic practices, especially animal sacrifice, and denied the existence of gods. Buddhism flourished for more than a millennium and spread to foreign lands also. But a decline set in after the Golden Age of the Guptas (4th to 5th centuries AD). Foreign historians, with limited knowledge of Indian philosophical systems, have attributed the decline of Buddhism in the land of its birth to the advent of Adi Sankara. The 68th Sankaracharya of the Kanchi Kamakoti Math, Shri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati, has effectively nailed this canard. According to him, Sankara was more concerned with setting right the errors in Saankhya and Meemaamsa philosophies of Hinduism which denied the importance of Isvara though basically subscribing to the Vedas. Even where he specifically dealt with Buddhism, he condemned only its denial of the existence of God. Then how did the religion decline? It was because of the vehement opposition to Buddhism on philosophical and religious grounds by Meemaamsakas and Taarkikas (logicians). The point is also that, even as people admired Buddha and turned to his religion, they did not give up their old beliefs and ritualistic practices. To give a contemporary example, many call themselves Gandhians but in their lives, official or personal, they follow a path just the opposite of what he showed! King Ashoka (2nd century BC) did much to propagate the religion within India and without. Still in his rock edicts ... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddhism was introduced from India into China in 6th Century AD. One of the Hen Emperors sent a mission to the west of China and brought back the scriptures, Indian monks and the images of Buddha. Since then Chinese translation was made available and the further exchange of scholars among China, India and other Asian countries brought about the rapid development of Buddhism in China. Buddhist monasteries and temples were built to promote the Buddhism and some of the Emperors were also the followers of Buddhism. Buddhism, just like Confucianism and Taoism, guides people to behave, to be honest and responsible. It promotes harmony and peaceful mind, sharing and compassion. Buddhists never force people into their belief. Buddhism emphasizes in "awakening of mind". Through learning, one will develop intellectual capacity to the fullest so as to understand, to love and be kind to other beings. Buddhism does not believe in God. It believes in People. In Buddhist teaching, there is no aggressive promotion of Buddhism or strong rejection of other religions. All these make Buddhism fall into the same scope of Confucianism and Taoist. Its ability to co-exist with any other religions makes it being developed into one of the largest religions in China. The basic Buddhist concepts base on Four Noble Truths: First Noble Truth - life is suffering mentally and physically in the forms of sickness, injuries, aging, death, tiredness, anger, loneliness, frustration, fear and anxiety, etc. Second Noble Truth - all these suffering are caused by craving. A self-centered person with continuous wanting from others will cause mental unhappiness. In turn, it will cause physical exhaust and fatigue in life. Third Noble Truth - all sufferings can be overcome and avoided. When one gives up endless wanting and endures problems that life evolves without fear, hatred and anger, happiness and freedom will then be obtained. Overcome the mentality of self-center a... Free Essays on Buddhism To summarise, once we are able to recognise what suffering really is, then we can start to remove its causes. To stop these activities that have no merits, we have to Ã¢â¬Å"dig out the root of defilementÃ¢â¬ (Cush, 1994). To eradicate personal defilement, one needs to remove their heart, which is this belief in a self. If one does that, then one will eventually come to realise the wisdom of non-self. Through understanding Ã¢â¬Å"the absence of a self, we should no longer create bad actions and bring an end to the whole process of ruining ourselves,Ã¢â¬ (Francesconni, 2001) and this is the cessation or end to suffering. We begin to see a prevailing optimism in Buddhism that the human spirit, with the right understanding of the self, can begin to make themselves pure of thought. The fourth noble truth is the path leading to the end of suffering. To achieve this, one must progressively go step by step, stage by stage in order to complete their journey. The Noble Eightfold Path is the set of actions and attitudes that can lead to the cessation of suffering. The eightfold path can be thought of as simply the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s handbook for attaining nirvana, Ã¢â¬Å"that mysterious state of pure consciousness in which suffering ceases because there is no Self to experience it.Ã¢â¬ (Sumedha, 2001). This state can be difficult for the western mind to describe and grasp, however, the idea behind it is pure and therefore should be seen as optimistic. High in the mountains of the Himalayas chants ring out from the Tibetan monastery. For most this is a dream-like vacation to a far away land. For some of the people who live in Tibet and India this is everyday life as a Buddhist. Buddhism revolves around a strict code of daily rituals and meditations. To an outsider they can seem mystical or even odd, but these are the paths to enlightenment and spiritual salvation. Throughout the centuries, Buddhism has evolved into a major religion in Asia and other parts of th... Free Essays on Buddhism LetÃ¢â¬â¢s begin with some text book terms of the eight fold path which include: 1. Right aspiration-which is to rid yourself of attachment and hate because the minds intentions are the key link. 2. Right speech is to not lie, or talk down about people because Ã¢â¬Å"bad speechÃ¢â¬ is instigation for wars or enemies. 3. Right action- is to do good deeds, not to go out and kill someone, steal, or commit Ã¢â¬Å"adulteryÃ¢â¬ which is sexual misconduct. 4. Right livelihood- to avoid dishonesty and refrain from hurting all living things. 5. Right effort- to rid bad qualities, and do well, to develop compassion. 6. Right mindfulness- is to focus on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right, and to overcome ignorance/hate. 7. Right concentration- meditatecomplete focus of truly understanding the meaning of imperfection. 8. Right view- is to understand the four noble truths. The four noble truths that need to be understood are as followed: Life is suffering Suffering is due to attachment Attachment can be overcome There is a path for accomplishing this. I partially agree with the belief that Ã¢â¬Å"Life is sufferingÃ¢â¬ . Yes, there are the rough points of life which you must suffer though. However, all that suffering eventfully leads to joy. You wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what suffering was if you had never experienced happiness. Happiness is just an emotion, and emotions are not permanent. Therefore, the suffering or emotion you feel can not be permanent either because life will end at some point. Suffering may be do to attachment, but also you will receive happiness from whatever this attachment is. Attachment I feel can be over come to an extent. No matter how strong of a person you may be youÃ¢â¬â¢re still going to have a need or passion for something regardless. The eightfold path can not completely release all your need for attachment regardless how much you focus on doing good deeds or the Ã¢â¬Å"right actionsÃ¢â¬ . Humans were created with a need for attachment or a commitmen... Free Essays on Buddhism The Bhagavad Gita is a very unique scripture. When I read it, it showed me in a very comprehensive way, the very soul of the ancient vedic religion of India. In its seven hundred verses, it holds a very important message for us and for all mankind to come. It contains a revelation of an age-old mystery of man (existence of universe and God). It gives us practical instructions on the processes for attaining God-experience. No wonder therefore, that all true seekers after divine experience praise the Gita as one of the most valuable treasures in the common wisdom-heritage of mankind in this world. For, it has a timeless message and its teachings are of eternal power. If studied in detail, Gita could make our daily life divine, and it would lift it up to a new physical and spiritual level. Gita explains that Lord, it seems, in His Infinite generosity, as though crazy in His maddening love for us, gave all of us an important gift at our birth. This very important treasure, freely offered to each one of us as 'His birthday present', has been, in our ignorance and innocence, often misused, sometimes abused, and almost never rightly applied. A 'hand-book of instructions' was needed to explain how best we can use our personality, and to give tips on how to get the best performance from our abilities. And that handbook, in Hinduism, is the Bhagavad Gita, the Bible or the Koran of the Hindus. I especially enjoyed chapter number three. This Chapter details the error of placing oneself outside the totality of creation, which defeats the purpose of every form of effort. Man within and the world without, and the Supreme Divine Principle above, are to be taken in their togetherness, which is the principle of right understanding. The application in life of this right knowledge is Karma Yoga, or the Yoga of Action. Most of us only react to compulsions of basic (primal) hungers and desires, and so we do not recognize the beauty of a selfless, and therefo... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddhism Buddism is one of the world`s fastest spreading religions. At this time there are 313 million Buddist in Asia. And approximatley 500 thousand in North America. Buddism is not just a religion, but a way of life. It is a religion that helps the people that beleive in it to, search the deepest recuses of their souls to find what the true way to peace is. Buddhism was founded by a wealthy prince, Siddhartha Gautam, of the Sakya clan. After many years of practicing Hinduism. At the age of 29 Gautam left the old Hindu traditions. For seven years he meditated and reflected on the evils of the earth. One day while sitting under a fig tree he received Enlightnment. he gained the title of the Budda. And disscovered the four noble truths. The four noble truths, were principles that Budda beleived would lead to true happiness. The first noble truth was. That all things and people suffer. The second is, people suffer, because they desire. The third is, that suffering will end once people let go of there desires. And the fourth noble truth is, that the only way to end craving is by following the eight fold path to perfection. There are four main types of Buddism. Theravada, Mahayana, Tantic, and Zen. Theravada is the oldest form of Buddism. And is to this day practiced by many Buddist monks. Mahayana is a popular form of Buddism in the West. Tantic combines both Theravada Buddism and Mahayana Buddism with indian practices. The last form of Buddism is Zen Buddism. Zen buddist put a great emphasize on contemplation. And strive for satori (a glimpse into enlightenment). In all Buddism is a search for peace in ones self. Through contimplation, meditation, the four noble truths and the eight fold path. As a person goes from a selfcentered existance to a existance of enlightenment, commpassion and thought. And after years of searching. It may payoff with the arrival at Nirvana. Th... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddhism Buddhism was developed from the teachings of the ,Buddha, Gautama (or Gotama) who lived as early as the 6th century BC. Spreading from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, and Japan, Buddhism has played a central role in the spiritual, cultural, and social life of the Eastern world and during the 20th century has spread to the West. Buddhist worship consists mainly in reciting prayers and sacred texts and chanting hymns to the accompaniment of horns, trumpets, and drums. For this worship, which takes place three times a day, the clergy are summoned by the tolling of a small bell and are seated in rows according to their rank. The supreme position is occupied by two lamas- namely, the Grand, or Dalai Lama, and the Panchen, or Bogodo, Lama. Before the Chinese invasion of the area in 1950, both lamas theoretically had the same authority, but in actuality the Dalai Lama, possessing a greater temporal jurisdiction, was considerably more powerful. Next in rank are the Hutukhtus, or spiritual dignitaries. The third order is that of the Hobilghans, or bodhisattvas, those who have undertaken various ethical and spiritual disciplines with a view to achieving Buddha hood, or complete enlightenment. These three orders constitute the so-called higher clergy, the members of which are regarded as the incarnations of Bud dhist saints. A lower clergy is recruited on the basis of probity and theological proficiency. The lower clergy has four orders: the novice, the assistant priest, the religious mendicant, and the teacher or abbot. The members of each order must take a vow of celibacy. Most live in monasteries. The scriptures of Tibetan Buddhism are divided into two great collections: the canon, or sacred books, and the exegetical commentary. The canon, consisting of counsels and injunctions of the Buddha rendered from Indian and Chinese texts, contains more than 1000 works, which in some editions fill more than 100 vol... Free Essays on Buddhism Introduction In considering all of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s religions, I chose to do my research and paper on Buddhism. I chose this religion because it seems very interesting to me, and also because Buddhism is a completely different religion than my own. I visited the An Lac Temple on Sunday September 28, 2003 from 10-12. It is a Mahayana Buddhist temple. My boyfriend went along with me on this visit. When we first arrived, we were greeted and I explained to them who I was and that we would be visiting their temple for the day and they kindly took us to a sister who could speak English and was happy to answer my questions. Her name was Thanhtrang and she proceeded to give us lots of information about their temple and the Buddhist religion. Location and Affiliation: The An Lac temple is located at 5249 E 30th Street in Indianapolis. The neighborhood that surrounds the temple appears to be pretty run down. In the area there are a lot of trailer courts and tattered homes. The temple has been there for 10 years and it consists of 2 house-like buildings. One of them is the actual temple and the other is a building in which teachings for the children are held and the dinner after the service also takes place there. The meal after the service takes place to remind them where the food came from and the hardships it took to get the food. They always know what they are eating and will eat the food even if they do not like it because it helps them practice not to discriminate, even with something as little as food. The purpose of the temple is to offer a place where people are able to come and learn about the Buddhist beliefs, and also to learn and to keep cultures from the country where they originated. The temple hopes that with their teachings, when their children grow up they will know virtues and not bring bad habits into the world. In schools, they never learn how to take care of his or her soul. In the working world, all people care about ... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddhism Buddhism to me has always seemed to be something similar to that of a fairytale. Not knowing much about the religion, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand how you could live happily ever after by looking up to a fat guy and making weird chanting sounds to who knows who. Needless to say, for my exploration of culture, I chose Buddhism. To pursue my study, I attended a class at the Heruka Buddhist Center on October 17, and talked, afterwards, with a Western Buddhist nun, Gen Kelsang Losel, who came to Fort Collins from England for the center. The class was on contemplating the faults of attachments, a core belief among Buddhists. The session began with a half hour of meditation to relax the muscles of the body and release tension. Then for forty-five minutes she lectured. She talked about how all of our attachments and desires in our life lead us to pain and suffering. So in order to be happy, one must let go of our attachments. Following, was another session of meditation. Siddhartha Guatama, the founder of Buddhism, was born into a Hindu family where he was sheltered from pain and suffering. At age nineteen, he married his cousin and had had a son. At twenty-nine he left his wife and began a quest of inner illumination, recognizing that much of the world experiences suffering. Six years later he concluded that a life of self denial was futile. He sat under a tree and meditated for the first time, for this reason, Siddhartha was called Buddha which means enlightened one, and he realized that the cause of suffering was desire, attachment to material things. He spent the next forty years preaching the message of humility and compassion. He emphasized nirvana, which is what all Buddhists strive to achieve. It signifies the end of suffering and craving, the attainment of perfect peace. An Arahant is someone who has attained Nirvana. He said anyone can reach nirvana, by avoiding all extremes in accordance with the eightfold p... Free Essays on Buddhism Primitive man found himself in a dangerous and hostile world, the fear of wild animals, of not being able to find enough food, of injury or disease, and of natural phenomena like thunder, lightning and volcanoes was constantly with him. Finding no security, he created the idea of gods in order to give him comfort in good times, courage in times of danger and consolation when things went wrong. To this day, you will notice that people become more religious at times of crises, you will hear them say that the belief in a god or gods gives them the strength they need to deal with life. You will hear them explain that they believe in a particular god because they prayed in time of need and their prayer was answered. All this seems to support the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching that the god-idea is a response to fear and frustration. The Buddha taught us to try to understand our fears, to lessen our desires and to calmly and courageously accept the things we cannot change. He replaced fear, not w ith irrational belief but with rational understanding. The second reason the Buddha did not believe in a god is because there does not seem to be any evidence to support this idea. There are numerous religions, all claiming that they alone have godÃ¢â¬â¢s words preserved in their holy book, that they alone understand godÃ¢â¬â¢s nature, that their god exists and that the gods of other religions do not. Some claim that god is masculine, some that she is feminine and others that it is neuter. They are all satisfied that there is ample evidence to prove the existence of their god but they laugh in disbelief at the evidence other religions use to prove the existence of another god. It is not surprising that with so many different religions spending so many centuries trying to prove the existence of their gods that still no real, concrete, substantial or irrefutable evidence has been found. Buddhists suspend judgement until such evidence is forthcoming. The third reason t... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddha taught that in order to live a life that is free from pain and suffering people must eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only then will they gain a kind of peace and happiness. They must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance. They strive to cultivate four attitudes, loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. The basic moral code prohibits killing, stealing, harmful language, sexual misbehavior, and the use of intoxicants. Morality, wisdom, and samadhi, or concentration form the cornerstone of Buddhist faith. By observing these, lust, hatred, and delusion may be overcome. This is known as Nirvana. It is a realistic goal only for members of the monastic community. The most devoted followers of the Buddha were organized into the monastic sangha. They were identified by their shaved heads and robes made of unsewn orange cloth. Many early monks wandered from place to place, settling down only during the rainy season when traveling was difficult. The Buddhist have lasted because they have the ability to adapt to changing conditions and to a variety of cultures. Monks are expected to live a life of poverty, meditation, and study. They must avoid all sexual activity. They devote themselves to work, study, and prayer. They all dress in special robes. Monks play an important part in preserving and spreading Buddhism.... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddha taught that in order to live a life that is free from pain and suffering people must eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only then will they gain a kind of peace and happiness. They must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance. They strive to cultivate four attitudes, loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. The basic moral code prohibits killing, stealing, harmful language, sexual misbehavior, and the use of intoxicants. Morality, wisdom, and samadhi, or concentration form the cornerstone of Buddhist faith. By observing these, lust, hatred, and delusion may be overcome. This is known as Nirvana. It is a realistic goal only for members of the monastic community. The most devoted followers of the Buddha were organized into the monastic sangha. They were identified by their shaved heads and robes made of unsewn orange cloth. Many early monks wandered from place to place, settling down only during the rainy season when traveling was difficult. The Buddhist have lasted because they have the ability to adapt to changing conditions and to a variety of cultures. Monks are expected to live a life of poverty, meditation, and study. They must avoid all sexual activity. They devote themselves to work, study, and prayer. They all dress in special robes. Monks play an important part in preserving and spreading Buddhism.... Free Essays on Buddhism Ã¢â¬Å"Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religions for the future: it transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology, it covers both the natural and spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity.Ã¢â¬ (Albert Einstein) Known as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s great religions, it is professed by over 3500,000,000 people, most of whom live in the Far East. Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddharta Gautama, who is more commonly known as Buddha, the Ã¢â¬Å"Enlightened OneÃ¢â¬ . It was developed during the fifth and sixth centuries BCE around 535 BCE, which was the date Siddharta Gautama reached enlightenment and became the Buddha. The Buddhist doctrine of tolerance, pacifism, and the spiritual equality of all men has been a great civilizing influence in the far East. It has adapted itself to the impact of the West, and its insights have in turn in fluenced many Western thinkers. Buddhism is based on a rational analysis of manÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, and it attempts to show the way to salvation. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later be known as Buddha, was born in Lumbini, Nepal around the year 563 BC. He was the son of two important great people. SiddharthaÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Shuddhodana, the King of the Sakyas. His mother, Queen Maya, was a lady Ã¢â¬Å"of perfect form and bee-black tresses, fearless in heart and full of grace and virtue.Ã¢â¬ Siddhartha got his name from one of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Her dream was that an elephant with 6 tusks, carrying a lotus flower in its trunk, touched the right side of Queen MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s body. That was when Siddhartha was miraculously conceived. When she told her husband about her dream, he called Brahmins, or learned men to interpret it. They predicted that the child one-day would be the greatest king in the world or the greatest ascetic in the world. So thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they called him Siddhartha,... Free Essays on Buddhism Buddhism is one of the biggest religion founded in India in the 6th and 5th cent. B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. One of the great Asian religions, it teaches the practice of and the observance of moral precepts. The basic doctrines include the four noble truths taught by the Buddha. Since it was first introduced into China from India, Buddhism has had a history which has been characterized by periods of sometimes awkward and irregular development. This has mainly been the result of the clash of two cultures, each with a long history of tradition. Most of the difficulties have arisen due to the transplanting of an Indian religious/philosophical system onto a culture strongly dominated by indigenous secular, philosophical and religious systems. In spite of these difficulties, Chinese Buddhism has come to have an important influence on the growth and development of Buddhism in general and this has occurred largely because of its own innovatory contributions.(Eliade, M. p .16-29) The spread of Buddhism into China began in Central Asia and was facilitated by the efforts of the Indo-Scythian king Kanishka (Encyclopedia Britt. 273-274) of the Kushan dynasty which ruled in northern India, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia in the 1st and 2nd centuries (Encyclopedia Britt. 274). He is said to have undergone an Ashoka-like conversion upon seeing the slaughter caused by his campaigns. Around the beginning of the common era, Buddhism started to filter into China from Central Asia via the Silk Road, brought by monks, merchants and other travelers. It also entered later via trade routes around and through Southeast Asia. It was nurtured in the expatriate community of Loyang and other northern cities. (The Encyclopedia of Religion p58-62) Siddhartha (Buddha) was born around 563 B.C.E. in the town of Kapilavastu, located in today's Nepal. Siddhartha's parents were King Shuddhodana and Queen Maya, who ruled the Sakyas. His history is...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
How to Grow Black Crystals This crystal growing recipe produces black crystals. You can make them solid black like black diamonds, or translucent black like smoky quartz. Materials Black food coloring is used to make black crystals. While this crystal recipe calls for borax, you could grow black sugar crystals or rock candy, if you prefer. The black pipe-cleaner is not essential, but it provides a good surface for crystal growth and is not visible underneath the dark crystals. BoraxHot waterWide mouth jar or glassBlack pipe-cleanersBlack food coloring Directions Bend the black pipe-cleaner into any shape you like, as long as it will fit inside the glass or jar you are using to grow the crystals. Bend an end of the pipe-cleaner over a pencil or butter knife so that the shape will be hanging inside the jar. Try to keep the pipe-cleaner shape from touching the sides or bottom of the container. Remove the shape and set it aside.Prepare the crystal growing solution. Fill the jar with boiling water. Stir borax into the water a little at a time until it stops dissolving. You will need about 3 tablespoons of borax for each cup of water. It is fine if a small amount of undissolved borax remains on the bottom of the container.Stir in 5 to 10 drops of black food coloring. A smaller number of drops will produce translucent black crystals. If you use a lot of black food coloring, you can get solid black crystals.Place the pipe-cleaner shape in the jar. Allow the crystals to grow several hours or overnight. Try to avoid disturbing the crystals. You wont b e able to see into the jar to see how they are doing. Wait several hours before checking on their progress. When you are satisfied with the crystals, remove them and hang them or set them on a paper towel to dry. The black food coloring can stain your hands, clothing, and furniture.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Political Science- Middle Eastern Politics - Essay Example There are two main answers to this difficult question. The first is perhaps the best. If Iraq asks for U.S. combat troops beyond 2011, America should agree, creating several rapid reaction forces, not numbering more than 20,000 soldiers, to help with problems that may arise. The hard part of implementing this policy will be selling it to both the American and Iraqi public. The second option the U.S. could pursue is to create a staging ground for a rapid reaction force outside of Iraq, perhaps in Saudi Arabia, which could be used in cases of emergency. Both potential strategies will be briefly discussed below. Many American lives have been lost in Iraq, and a great deal of money has been spent. It is tempting, now that violence has been dramatically reduced, to wash our hands of the issue. But the possibility remains that Iraq could revert to a chaotic situation and that we must not allow this to happen. The American Defence Secretary Robert Gates recently signalled that the Obama adm inistration would be willing to continue keeping combat troops in Iraq after 2011 if asked by the Iraqi government. The military commander in Iraq, General Austin agreed there may be a need for this: Speaking to a group of reporters travelling with Gates, Austin gave the strong impression that he thinks Iraq needs a U.S. military presence beyond December, but he said he had not yet been asked to provide a recommendation to Washington. He said Iraq faced the possibility of a "more violent environment" next year, given the absence of U.S. military force and the failure to resolve key political problems, like the Kurd-Arab tensions in Kirkuk and elsewhere in the north (NPR). The willingness is there among policymakers, but the largest problem would be convincing the American public that this was necessary. Strategically, this is one of the more difficult parts of the plan. Americans are sick and tired of Iraq. They want nothing more to do with it. While Republicans would probably side with Obama, it will be politically difficult for him to convince anti-war Democrats to permit American combat troops to stay in Iraq. Obama has already alienated left-wing Democrats with a number of his policies; facing reelection 2012, he might be loath to further enrage them, potentially inviting a primary challenge from the left. While the politics of this choice make it strategically difficult, it may be the only good option. Another strategy would involve refusing combat troops in Iraq, and creating a rapid reaction force nearby, in another country. There are problems with this idea, however. America is already committed to having a major diplomatic presence in Iraq after 2011. According to a recent Senate report: Ã¢â¬Å"The diplomatic mission that remains will be an initiative of unprecedented size and complexity, currently projected to consist of some 17,000 individuals on 15 different sites, including 3 air hubs, 3 police training centers, 2 consulates, 2 embassy branch offi ces, and 5 Office of Security Cooperation sitesÃ¢â¬ (Senate Report, 2). Without a security presence, it will be very difficult to sustain this kind of operation. It may be in America's own interest, as much as the Iraqi's, to have a combat force in Iraq. American diplomatic operations will certainly attract fire in the years ahead, and it will be hard to trust the Iraqi army to properly provide security. Having a